Data Visualization #19—Using panelView in R to produce TSCS (time-series cross-section) plots

As part of a project to assess the influence, or impact, of Canadian provincial government ruling ideologies on provincial economic performance I have created a time-series cross-section summary of my party ideology variable across provinces over time. A time-series cross-section research design is one in which there is variation across space (cross-section) and also over time. The time units can literally be anything although in comparative politics they are often years. The cross-section part can be countries, cities, individuals, states, or (in my case) provinces. Here is the snippet of the data structure in my dataset (data frame in R):

canparty.df[1:20,c(2:4,23)]

Year                    Region                      Pol.Party party.ideology
1981                   Alberta Progressive Conservative Party              1
1981          British Columbia            Social Credit Party              1
1981                  Manitoba Progressive Conservative Party              1
1981             New Brunswick Progressive Conservative Party              1
1981 Newfoundland and Labrador Progressive Conservative Party              1
1981               Nova Scotia Progressive Conservative Party              1
1981                   Ontario Progressive Conservative Party              1
1981      Prince Edward Island Progressive Conservative Party              1
1981                    Quebec                Parti Quebecois              0
1981              Saskatchewan           New Democratic Party             -1
1982                   Alberta Progressive Conservative Party              1
1982          British Columbia            Social Credit Party              1
1982                  Manitoba           New Democratic Party             -1
1982             New Brunswick Progressive Conservative Party              1
1982 Newfoundland and Labrador Progressive Conservative Party              1
1982               Nova Scotia Progressive Conservative Party              1
1982                   Ontario Progressive Conservative Party              1
1982      Prince Edward Island Progressive Conservative Party              1
1982                    Quebec                Parti Quebecois              0
1982              Saskatchewan Progressive Conservative Party              1

To get the plot picture below, we use the R code at the bottom of this post. But a couple of notes: first, the year data are not in true date format. Rather, they are in periods, which I have conveniently labelled years. In other words, what is important for the analysis that I will do (generalized synthetic control method) is to periodize the data. Second, because elections occur at any point during the year, I have had to make a decision as to which party is coded as having been in government that year.

Since my main goal is to assess economic performance, and because economic policies take time to be passed, and to implement, I made the decision to use June 30th as a cutoff point. If a party was elected prior to that date, it is coded as having governed the province in that whole year. If the election was held on July 1st (or after), then the incumbent party is coded as having governed the province the year of the election and the new government is coded as having started its mandate the following year.

Here’s the plot, and the R code below:

library(gsynth)
library(panelView)
library(ggplot2)

ggpanel1 <- panelView(Prop.seats.gov ~ party.ideology + Prov.GDP.Cap, data = canparty.df, 
          index = c("Region", "Year"), main = "Provincial Ruling Party Ideology", 
          legend.labs = c("Left", "Centre", "Right"), col=c("orange", "red", "blue"), 
          axis.lab.gap = c(2,0), xlab="", ylab="")
## I've used Prop.seats.gov and Prov.GDP.Cap b/c they are two 
## of my IVs, but any other IVs could have been used to 
## create the plot. The important part is the party.ideology 
## variable and the two index variables--Region (province)  ## and Year.

## Save the plot as a .png file

ggsave(filename="ProvRulingParty.png", plot=ggpanel1, height=8,width=7)

Data Visualization #18—Maps with Inset Maps

There are many different ways to make use of inset maps. The general motivation behind their use is to focus in on an area of a larger map in order to expose more detail about a particular area. Here, I am using the patchwork package in R to place a series of inset maps of major Canadian cities on the map that I created in my previous post. Here is the map and a snippet of the R code below:

Created by: Josip Dasović

You can see that a small land area contains just under 50% of Canada’s electoral districts. Once again, in a democracy, citizens vote. Land doesn’t.

In order to use the patchwork package, it is helpful to first create each of the city plots individually and store those as ggplot objects. Here are examples for Vancouver and Calgary.

## My main map (sf) object is named can_sf. Here I'm created a plot using only 
## districts in the Vancouver, then Calgary areas, respectively. I also limit the
## districts to those that comprise the "red" (see map) 50% population group.

library(ggplot2)
library(sf)

yvr.plot <- ggplot(can_sf[can_sf$prov.region=="Vancouver and Northern Lower Mainland" &
                             can_sf$Land.50.Pop.2016==1 | can_sf$prov.region=="Fraser Valley and Southern Lower Mainland" &
                             can_sf$Land.50.Pop.2016==1,]) + 
  geom_sf(aes(fill = Land.50.Pop.2016), col="black", lwd=0.05) + 
  scale_fill_manual(values=c("red")) +
  theme(axis.text.x=element_blank(),
        axis.text.y=element_blank(),
        axis.ticks.x = element_blank(),
        axis.ticks.y = element_blank(),
        legend.position = "none",
        plot.margin=unit(c(0,0,0,0), "mm"))

yyc.plot <- ggplot(can_sf[can_sf$prov.region=="Calgary" &
                            can_sf$Land.50.Pop.2016==1,]) + 
  geom_sf(aes(fill = Land.50.Pop.2016), col="black", lwd=0.05) + 
  scale_fill_manual(values=c("red")) +
  theme(axis.text.x=element_blank(),
        axis.text.y=element_blank(),
        axis.ticks.x = element_blank(),
        axis.ticks.y = element_blank(),
        legend.position = "none",
        plot.margin=unit(c(0,0,0,0), "mm"))

I have created a separate ggplot2 object for each of the cities that are inset onto the main Canada map above. The final R code looks like this:

## Add patchwork library
library(patchwork)

## Note: gg50 is the original map used in the previous post.

gg.50.insets <- gg.50 + inset_element(yvr.plot, left = -0.175, bottom = 0.25, 
                            right = 0, top = 0.45, on_top=TRUE, align_to = "plot",
                            clip=TRUE) +
  labs(title="VANCOUVER") +
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = 0.5, size=9, vjust=-1, face="bold"),
        panel.border = element_rect(colour = "black", fill=NA, size=1)) +
  inset_element(yeg.plot, left = -0.175, bottom = 0, 
                right = -0.025, top = 0.2, on_top=TRUE, align_to = "plot",
                clip=TRUE) +
  labs(title="EDMONTON") +
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = 0.5, size=9, vjust=-1, face="bold"),
        panel.border = element_rect(colour = "black", fill=NA, size=1)) +
  inset_element(yyc.plot, left = -0.1, bottom = 0, 
                right = 0.20, top = 0.25, on_top=TRUE, align_to = "plot",
                clip=TRUE) +
  labs(title="CALGARY") +
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = 0.5, size=9, vjust=-1, face="bold"),
        panel.border = element_rect(colour = "black", fill=NA, size=1)) +
  inset_element(yxe.plot, left = 0.125, bottom = 0, 
                right = 0.275, top = 0.15, on_top=TRUE, align_to = "plot",
                clip=TRUE) +
  labs(title="SASKATOON") +
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = 0.5, size=9, vjust=-1, face="bold"),
        panel.border = element_rect(colour = "black", fill=NA, size=1)) +
  inset_element(yqr.plot, left = 0.225, bottom = 0, 
                right = 0.45, top = 0.175, on_top=TRUE, align_to = "plot",
                clip=TRUE) +
  labs(title="REGINA") +
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = 0.5, size=9, vjust=-1, face="bold"),
        panel.border = element_rect(colour = "black", fill=NA, size=1)) +
  inset_element(ywg.plot, left = 0.375, bottom = 0, 
                right = 0.55, top = 0.175, on_top=TRUE, align_to = "plot",
                clip=TRUE) +
  labs(title="WINNIPEG") +
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = 0.5, size=9, vjust=-1, face="bold"),
        panel.border = element_rect(colour = "black", fill=NA, size=1)) +
  inset_element(yyz.yhm.plot, left = 0.725, bottom = 0, 
                right = 1.15, top = 0.25, on_top=TRUE, align_to = "plot",
                clip=TRUE) +
  labs(title="TORONTO/\nHAMILTON") +
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = 0.5, size=9, vjust=-1, face="bold"),
        panel.border = element_rect(colour = "black", fill=NA, size=1)) +
  inset_element(yul.plot, left = 1, bottom = 0, 
                right = 1.175, top = 0.175, on_top=TRUE, align_to = "plot",
                clip=TRUE) +
  labs(title="MONTREAL") +
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = 0.5, size=9, vjust=-1, face="bold"),
        panel.border = element_rect(colour = "black", fill=NA, size=1)) +
  inset_element(yqb.plot, left = 0.95, bottom = 0.175, 
                right = 1.2, top = 0.375, on_top=TRUE, align_to = "plot",
                clip=TRUE) +
  labs(title="QUEBEC\nCITY") +
  theme(plot.title = element_text(hjust = 0.5, size=9, vjust=-1, face="bold"),
  panel.border = element_rect(colour = "black", fill=NA, size=1))

ggsave(filename="can_2019_50_pct_population_insets.png", plot=gg.50.insets, height=10, width=13)