Here are some questions that we will try to answer in class, based on the Mueller, Kalyvas, Collier & Hoeffler, and Kaldor readings:
- How has the nature of warfare changed (or has it) over the course of the last 70 years or so? Provide evidence from at least four sources.
- Comparatively assess the arguments of Collier & Hoeffer, Kalyvas, Mueller, and Kaldor. What are some commonalities? Divergence of opinion?
- What are the policy implications–from a humanitarian perspective–of taking each of the authors’ arguments seriously? Discuss.
Collier & Hoeffler (2004) “Greed and Grievance in Civil War
- Define `greed’ and `grievance’ in the context of the analysis of rebellion/civil war.
- What are the types of causal mechanisms that each term implies?
- What do C & L mean by `opportunity’?
- Based on the statistical results, what conclusion do C & L draw regarding the causes of the onset of rebellion?
- What is the analytical importance of diaspora communities?
- How important are ethnic grievances in fomenting rebellion?
. Mueller (2000) The Banality of `Ethnic War’
- Why does Mueller put the words ethnic war in scare quotes in the title?
- What does Mueller mean when he says that ethnic war is `banal?’
- What evidence does Mueller use to support his main argument(s)?
- According to Mueller, what are the stages of ethnic war and ethnic cleansing?
- What is `ethnic cleansing’?
- Did ethnicity play any role in the inter-ethnic violence in Yugoslavia and Rwanda?
Kaldor (2000) `Old’ and `New’ Wars
- How are globalization processes implicated in the phenomenon that Kaldor refers to as `new’ wars? What characteristics of globalization are relevant here? How?
- What does Kaldor mean by the phrase `identity politics’?
- Assess the analytical usefulness of Kaldor’s distinction between a “politics of identity” and a “politics of ideas”
- What are the two main sources of identity politics. Give some examples.
Kalyvas (2001) `Old’ and `New’ Wars: A Valid Distinction?
- In Kalyvas’ view, what is the importance of the end of the Cold War in terms of understanding civil war? How does this dier from Kaldor’s view?
- Along what three dimensions are new and old civil wars conventionally thought to diverge? Discuss.
- Do you agree or disagree with Enszensberger’s claim that new civil wars are “about nothing at all?” How would Kalyvas respond?
- Kalyvas asks a relevant question: “do people wage war in order to loot or do they loot to be able to wage war?”
- What are warlords and why is understanding what they do important to this whole debate?
- Were old civil wars ideologically pure? Discuss.
- “Our understanding of violence is culturally dened.” What does Kalyvas mean by this and why is it important?